The animation below shows the heat treatment simulation of an axle shaft using DANTE.
Part: 1 m long, 34.93 mm diameter axle shaft with a flange on one end and a 35-tooth spline on the other end.
Process: Inductor dwells at flange end for 9 seconds and then begins to move up the shaft at 12 mm/s for 1.5 seconds. The inductor slows to 8 mm/s and the spray begins at the flange. The inductor continues up the shaft, with the spray following, until the inductor is shut off as it nears the spline.
This animation shows the press quenching process of a through hardened bearing ring, which was experiencing quench cracking. The DANTE simulation showed high in-process tensile stresses at the bearing race (location of cracking). The martensite transformation in the core, along with friction from the dies, was determined to be the cause of cracking. Load pulsing of the press equipment was used to nearly reduce the quench cracking after learning the causes of cracking from the DANTE simulations.
The animation below shows the heat treatment simulation of a large landing gear using DANTE.
Part: 3 m long landing gear made of 300M steel.
Process: The landing gear is lowered into an oil tank, after being heated in a pit furnace, at a rate of 4 m/s. The landing gear then sits, fully immersed, in the oil until the phase transformations have completed.
The animation shows contact gear stresses, with the residual stress predicted from a DANTE heat treatment simulation, considered during the analysis. Stresses from forming operations can also be used as a starting condition for the DANTE heat treatment simulation.
The animation shows the use of DANTE heat treatment simulation software in modeling a low pressure carburization process of a high alloy steel with strong carbide forming elements (e.g.; Cr, Mo, V). The animation shows the prediction for carbon in the austenite matrix (left), carbon in carbide form (middle), and a relative carbide size (right). There is a total of 34 boost/diffuse steps, plus a final diffuse to help dissolve the carbides and achieve the correct case depth.
Animation shows the top view of a DANTE heat treatment simulation of a thin ring undergoing a 2-bar high pressure gas quench. There is a directional gas flow from bottom to top; simulating a front to back gas flow in the high pressure chamber. The distortion has been magnified 50X to clearly show the movement created by the nonuniform cooling and the resulting out of round distortion.
Simulation of DANTE controlled gas quenching process of a ring with nonuniform gas flow (from bottom to top of screen) using DANTE heat treatment simulation software. The process reduces distortion of steel components during gas quenching by controlling the quench gas temperature, which controls the thermal and phase transformation gradients in the part. Nonuniform gas flow is identical to the animation above (HPGQ Simulation of Thin Ring with Directional Gas Flow)
Animation of a press quenching operation of a steel gear using DANTE heat treatment simulation software.
Animation of an oil quenching process of a gas carburized bevel gear. The gear has 40 teeth with an 8 inch outer diameter, a 1.5 inch bore, and an axial length of 4 inches. The entire gear is gas carburized to an effective case depth of 0.028 inches and cooled to room temperature after carburizing. The part is then heated to form austenite, transferred from the heating furnace to the quench tank, and quenched in oil. Notice the amount of movement that the bevel undergoes. That is why these types of gears are generally press quenched.
Animation of a steel cube subjected to 150 austenitizing-quenching cycles. It is clear the cube is turning into a sphere. The inset shows a photograph of an actual steel cube subjected to several hundred austenitizing-quenching cycles.
Animation of a high pressure gas quenching process of a bevel gear. Temperature, in degrees Celsius, is shown on the left and martensite volume fraction on the right. The rapid cooling creates a large temperature gradient in the gear, which results in a nonuniform transformation to martensite and significant bow distortion of the tooth. Press quenching is generally used to try and control his behavior. DANTE Controlled Gas Quenching (DCGQ) can also be used to control this distortion.
Animation of a DANTE Controlled Gas Quenching (DCGQ) process of a bevel gear. Temperature, in degrees Celsius, is shown on the left and martensite volume fraction on the right. The controlled cooling creates a minimal temperature gradient in the gear, which results in a near uniform transformation to martensite and nearly no tooth bow. DCGQ can be used to replace press quenching in difficult to quench geometries and offers better dimensional stability and repeatability than HPGQ.
Animation showing a machining operation performed on a gear tooth, with the residual stresses from heat treatment considered. Notice the stress rebalance which occurs after material is removed, even from the opposite tooth flank. This type of simulation can be beneficial when determining post-heat treatment finishing operations which require material removal.
This animation compares the loading of a gear tooth if the gear tooth is considered stress free at the start of loading (left) and if the residual stresses from heat treatment are considered (right). DANTE was used to predict the residual stress in the gear from carburization and oil quenching. Without considering residual stress, the gear would surely fail. However, once the surface residual compression is considered, the gear should survive service.